We are allowed to provide tissues just for Iranian citizens. We have no shortage about the most tissue sources. Mentioning type of preservation and tissue availability the time of delivery may be a few hours until 2 weeks .we introduce all   type of ITB tissue preservation and storage method as following:

Tissue Preservation, Storage, Transit and Reconstitution

Preservation (General) is dependent upon the specific grafts

shaped and surgeon preference. These preservation techniques

range from simple hypothermia to complex techniques

like lyophilization (freeze-drying). Regardless of the

techniques employed, the purpose is to maintain the integrity

of the tissue grafts for specified periods of time, while maintaining

their biological potential.

Storage (General) of allograft is typically based on the particular

graft. There are three methods for storing tissue: fresh,

frozen and freeze dried.

Transit (General) between the tissue bank/distribution center

and the operating room, tissue storage temperatures must

be maintained and the mode of transport must not violate

the sterile packaging while maintaining the integrity and biological

potential of the tissue grafts.

Reconstitution (General) is primarily based on surgeon


Storage Methods



Simple hypothermia is the storage of tissues at or about 1˚C

to 10˚C that are usually immersed in nutrient culture media

with antibiotics. This method of preservation is used for

short-term storage only and is intended to preserve viable

cells. The limitations of this preservation technique are evident

in the short shelf-life of the tissue graft. Hypothermia

reduces the oxygen consumption of the viable cells, thereby

slowing cellular metabolism and allowing the recovery of

the maximum number of viable cells.


The individual allografts are submerged in nutrient culture

media with antibiotics. Upon arrival, allograft should have

the appearance of floating in solution. If the liquid appears

frozen, the graft should be treated as useless to its application.

The cells have died and are not viable. The sterile packaging

may be in plastic jars or pouches. Whatever the pack-

aging, it is always sterile and in twofold. The circulator handles the outer packaging while handing the inner

container to the scrubbed personnel.


Pre-frozen foam refrigerant (ice packs/blue ice/wet ice) is packed around the fresh tissue in well-insulated

styrofoam boxes. Upon arrival to the hospital, if surgery is not immediate, remove allograft contained in its

packaging from styrofoam box and place in the refrigerator compartment (not freezer!) until surgery.

Reconstitution: Suitable thawing procedures

For the fresh allograft, submerge into refrigerated 1˚C to 10˚C sterile lactated ringer’s bath with or without

antibiotics. From recovery, processing, storage and shipment, the allograft has been kept at hypothermia. It is

logical to reconstitute the graft in solutions at that temperature.



The freezing of tissues at temperatures below -70˚C is routinely used for the long-term storage of musculoskeletal

tissues. Storage at these temperatures is thought to inhibit enzymatic degradation of tissues, most notably

collagenase and protease activity. An uncontrolled freeze of tissues at these temperatures does not aid in the

preservation of viable cells; therefore, this technique is reserved for tissues in which cellular viability is not

crucial to the clinical performance of the allografts. Many mechanical refrigeration devices are capable of attaining

these temperatures. In addition, liquid nitrogen storage containers are quite suitable for the storage of

these tissues, attaining temperatures as low as -196˚C


The individual allografts are frozen with little or no solution. The sterile packaging may be in plastic jars or

pouches. Whatever the packaging, it is always aseptic and in twofold. The circulator handles the outer packaging

while handing the inner container to the scrubbed personnel.


Dry ice packed around the frozen tissue in well-insulated styrofoam or similar boxes has proven effective for

maintaining frozen bone during transport to the user institution.

Dry Ice (solid carbon dioxide, temperatures about -76˚C) is acceptable for storage. The only drawback is that

it is a logistical problem of checking the quantity levels of dry ice and restocking on a daily basis, depending

on the size of the container. For suppliers of dry ice in your area—most supermarkets carry dry ice for sale or

their own storage use—check the yellow pages under dry ice or carbonics.

Standard mechanical freezers were manufactured to mimic the temperatures of dry ice to reduce logistical

problems. However, for reliable long-term storage, it is necessary to reduce the temperature further.

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Freeze Dried: Lyophilized


Freeze-drying is the removal of water from a substance under vacuum, transforming the water in its crystalline

form to water vapor without its ever passing through the liquid phase. This phenomenon is termed sublimation.

This means of preserving tissue was first implemented by the U.S. Navy Tissue Bank. Lyophilization is

quite useful in the long-term preservation and storage tissues when other means are impractical. Once tissue

is freeze-dried, it can be maintained at room temperatures without the need for special handling and can be

distributed over long distances. Freeze drying is purported to alter the biomechanical properties of tissues;

therefore, rehydration of the tissue prior to use is required to restore these properties.


The individual allografts packaging may be in glass jars or plastic pouches. Whatever the packaging, it is

always aseptic. The circulator handles the outer packaging while handing the inner container to the scrubbed



Freeze dried tissue is placed to avoid breakage and is shipped at ambient temperatures.

Reconstitution: Suitable thawing procedures

Submerge the freeze-dried allograft into a 22˚C–37˚C sterile saline baths (0.9% sodium chloride) with or

without antibiotics.

This should be done as the surgery is beginning. By the time the surgical site is prepared to receive the allograft,

the tissue will be thawed.