We are allowed to provide tissues just for Iranian citizens. We have no shortage about the most tissue sources. Mentioning type of preservation and tissue availability the time of delivery may be a few hours until 2 weeks .we introduce all type of ITB tissue preservation and storage method as following:
Tissue Preservation, Storage, Transit and Reconstitution
Preservation (General) is dependent upon the specific grafts
shaped and surgeon preference. These preservation techniques
range from simple hypothermia to complex techniques
like lyophilization (freeze-drying). Regardless of the
techniques employed, the purpose is to maintain the integrity
of the tissue grafts for specified periods of time, while maintaining
their biological potential.
Storage (General) of allograft is typically based on the particular
graft. There are three methods for storing tissue: fresh,
frozen and freeze dried.
Transit (General) between the tissue bank/distribution center
and the operating room, tissue storage temperatures must
be maintained and the mode of transport must not violate
the sterile packaging while maintaining the integrity and biological
potential of the tissue grafts.
Reconstitution (General) is primarily based on surgeon
Simple hypothermia is the storage of tissues at or about 1˚C
to 10˚C that are usually immersed in nutrient culture media
with antibiotics. This method of preservation is used for
short-term storage only and is intended to preserve viable
cells. The limitations of this preservation technique are evident
in the short shelf-life of the tissue graft. Hypothermia
reduces the oxygen consumption of the viable cells, thereby
slowing cellular metabolism and allowing the recovery of
the maximum number of viable cells.
The individual allografts are submerged in nutrient culture
media with antibiotics. Upon arrival, allograft should have
the appearance of floating in solution. If the liquid appears
frozen, the graft should be treated as useless to its application.
The cells have died and are not viable. The sterile packaging
may be in plastic jars or pouches. Whatever the pack-
aging, it is always sterile and in twofold. The circulator handles the outer packaging while handing the inner
container to the scrubbed personnel.
Pre-frozen foam refrigerant (ice packs/blue ice/wet ice) is packed around the fresh tissue in well-insulated
styrofoam boxes. Upon arrival to the hospital, if surgery is not immediate, remove allograft contained in its
packaging from styrofoam box and place in the refrigerator compartment (not freezer!) until surgery.
Reconstitution: Suitable thawing procedures
For the fresh allograft, submerge into refrigerated 1˚C to 10˚C sterile lactated ringer’s bath with or without
antibiotics. From recovery, processing, storage and shipment, the allograft has been kept at hypothermia. It is
logical to reconstitute the graft in solutions at that temperature.
The freezing of tissues at temperatures below -70˚C is routinely used for the long-term storage of musculoskeletal
tissues. Storage at these temperatures is thought to inhibit enzymatic degradation of tissues, most notably
collagenase and protease activity. An uncontrolled freeze of tissues at these temperatures does not aid in the
preservation of viable cells; therefore, this technique is reserved for tissues in which cellular viability is not
crucial to the clinical performance of the allografts. Many mechanical refrigeration devices are capable of attaining
these temperatures. In addition, liquid nitrogen storage containers are quite suitable for the storage of
these tissues, attaining temperatures as low as -196˚C
The individual allografts are frozen with little or no solution. The sterile packaging may be in plastic jars or
pouches. Whatever the packaging, it is always aseptic and in twofold. The circulator handles the outer packaging
while handing the inner container to the scrubbed personnel.
Dry ice packed around the frozen tissue in well-insulated styrofoam or similar boxes has proven effective for
maintaining frozen bone during transport to the user institution.
Dry Ice (solid carbon dioxide, temperatures about -76˚C) is acceptable for storage. The only drawback is that
it is a logistical problem of checking the quantity levels of dry ice and restocking on a daily basis, depending
on the size of the container. For suppliers of dry ice in your area—most supermarkets carry dry ice for sale or
their own storage use—check the yellow pages under dry ice or carbonics.
Standard mechanical freezers were manufactured to mimic the temperatures of dry ice to reduce logistical
problems. However, for reliable long-term storage, it is necessary to reduce the temperature further.
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Freeze Dried: Lyophilized
Freeze-drying is the removal of water from a substance under vacuum, transforming the water in its crystalline
form to water vapor without its ever passing through the liquid phase. This phenomenon is termed sublimation.
This means of preserving tissue was first implemented by the U.S. Navy Tissue Bank. Lyophilization is
quite useful in the long-term preservation and storage tissues when other means are impractical. Once tissue
is freeze-dried, it can be maintained at room temperatures without the need for special handling and can be
distributed over long distances. Freeze drying is purported to alter the biomechanical properties of tissues;
therefore, rehydration of the tissue prior to use is required to restore these properties.
The individual allografts packaging may be in glass jars or plastic pouches. Whatever the packaging, it is
always aseptic. The circulator handles the outer packaging while handing the inner container to the scrubbed
Freeze dried tissue is placed to avoid breakage and is shipped at ambient temperatures.
Reconstitution: Suitable thawing procedures
Submerge the freeze-dried allograft into a 22˚C–37˚C sterile saline baths (0.9% sodium chloride) with or
This should be done as the surgery is beginning. By the time the surgical site is prepared to receive the allograft,
the tissue will be thawed.